Physiology and pathophysiology of human airway mucus.

TitlePhysiology and pathophysiology of human airway mucus.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsDB Hill, B Button, M Rubinstein, and RC Boucher
JournalPhysiological Reviews
Volume102
Start Page1757
Issue4
Pagination1757 - 1836
Date Published10/2022
Abstract

The mucus clearance system is the dominant mechanical host defense system of the human lung. Mucus is cleared from the lung by cilia and airflow, including both two-phase gas-liquid pumping and cough-dependent mechanisms, and mucus transport rates are heavily dependent on mucus concentration. Importantly, mucus transport rates are accurately predicted by the gel-on-brush model of the mucociliary apparatus from the relative osmotic moduli of the mucus and periciliary-glycocalyceal (PCL-G) layers. The fluid available to hydrate mucus is generated by transepithelial fluid transport. Feedback interactions between mucus concentrations and cilia beating, via purinergic signaling, coordinate Na<sup>+</sup> absorptive vs Cl<sup>-</sup> secretory rates to maintain mucus hydration in health. In disease, mucus becomes hyperconcentrated (dehydrated). Multiple mechanisms derange the ion transport pathways that normally hydrate mucus in muco-obstructive lung diseases, e.g., cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), non-CF bronchiectasis (NCFB), and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). A key step in muco-obstructive disease pathogenesis is the osmotic compression of the mucus layer onto the airway surface with the formation of adherent mucus plaques and plugs, particularly in distal airways. Mucus plaques create locally hypoxic conditions and produce airflow obstruction, inflammation, infection, and, ultimately, airway wall damage. Therapies to clear adherent mucus with hydrating and mucolytic agents are rational, and strategies to develop these agents are reviewed.

DOI10.1152/physrev.00004.2021
Short TitlePhysiological Reviews